# Often asked: How can statistics be used to misrepresent data?

## How are statistics used to analyze data?

Two main statistical methods are used in data analysis: descriptive statistics, which summarize data from a sample using indexes such as the mean or standard deviation, and inferential statistics, which draw conclusions from data that are subject to random variation (e.g., observational errors, sampling variation).

## How can statistics be used to mislead?

There are different ways how statistics can be misleading that we will detail later. The most common one is of course correlation versus causation, that always leaves out another (or two or three) factor that are the actual causation of the problem.

## Is it possible to misrepresent data and conclusions using statistics?

It is possible that errors in the application of biostatistics may occur at any or all stages of a study. Furthermore, a single statistical error can be adequate to invalidate any study results (17).

## What is an example of using statistics to mislead?

In 2007, toothpaste company Colgate ran an ad stating that 80% of dentists recommend their product. Based on the promotion, many shoppers assumed Colgate was the best choice for their dental health. But this wasn’t necessarily true. In reality, this is a famous example of misleading statistics.

## What are the 3 types of statistics?

Types of Statistics in Maths

• Descriptive statistics.
• Inferential statistics.

## What are the four types of data in statistics?

In statistics, there are four data measurement scales: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. These are simply ways to sub-categorize different types of data (here’s an overview of statistical data types).

## Can statistics be misused explain with 2 examples?

Answer: Statistics, when used in a misleading fashion, can trick the casual observer into believing something other than what the data shows. The false statistics trap can be quite damaging for the quest for knowledge. For example, in medical science, correcting a falsehood may take decades and cost lives.

## Can statistics prove anything?

Statistics can never “proveanything. All a statistical test can do is assign a probability to the data you have, indicating the likelihood (or probability) that these numbers come from random fluctuations in sampling.

## Can statistics be manipulated?

There are several undeniable truths about statistics: First and foremost, they can be manipulated, massaged and misstated. Second, if bogus statistical information is repeated often enough, it eventually is considered to be true.

## How can you prevent data misleading?

1. 5 Ways to Avoid Being Fooled By Statistics.
2. Do A Little Bit of Math and apply Common Sense.
3. Always Look for the Source and check the authority of the source.
4. Question if the statistics are biased or statistically insignificant.
5. Question if the statistics are skewed purposely or Misinterpreted.

## Which data Cannot be studied under statistics?

Answer: When census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect data by developing specific experiment designs and survey samples.

## What dangers and fallacies are associated with the use of statistics?

Statistical fallacies occur due to inadequate sample that is used for generalized conclusion; incomparable groups presented as comparable; mixing of two or more distinct groups that in fact require separate consideration; misuse of percentages, means and graphs; incomplete reporting that suppresses facts; ignoring

## Why is it important to know statistics?

Statistical knowledge helps you use the proper methods to collect the data, employ the correct analyses, and effectively present the results. Statistics is a crucial process behind how we make discoveries in science, make decisions based on data, and make predictions.